A catalytic converter Is a Vehicle Emissions Control Device .A Catalyst, A Ceramic Honeycomb Coated With Platinum And Palladium Or Rhodium Which Present In side Converter Converts The Pollutants like carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides Into carbon dioxide, water, oxygen and Nitrogen by catalyzing a redox reaction(oxidation or reduction) before they leaving the car’s exhaust system. Mostly These Devices Are Used in Both Petrol (gasoline) And Diesel Engines.
Catalytic converters are Not Meant for Only Cars but They Can Be Also Used In electrical generators, forklifts, mining equipment, trucks, buses, locomotives, motorcycles, and airplanes. In Some Cases They Are Used In wood stoves to control emissions.
The Catalytic converters were further developed by engineers including John J. Mooney and Carl D. Keith at the Engel hard Corporation. Who creating the first production catalytic converter in 1973.
In the early 1970s developed a catalytic combustor for gas turbines allowing combustion without significant formation of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide.
The catalytic converters are First Used in the United States automobile market. Manufacturers of 1975 model year equipped gasoline-powered vehicles with catalytic converters to comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys stricter regulation of exhaust emissions.
Basically There Are Two Types In Catalytic Converters:
1) Two Way Catalytic Converter
2) Three-Way Catalytic Converters
Two-way Catalytic Converter:
A two-way (or “oxidation”) catalytic converter will perform two simultaneous tasks:
1. By Oxidation It Converting Carbon monoxide to into carbon dioxide.
2. By Oxidation It Converting Hydrocarbons (unburnt and partially burnt fuel) into to carbon dioxide and Water. This type of catalytic converter is widely used in diesel engines to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions.
Three-way Catalytic Converter:
Three-way catalytic converters (TWC) have the additional advantage of controlling the emission of nitrogen oxides Which Are Released. Nitrogen Oxide Is the Main Substance to Cause acid rains and Also Causing Harm To ozone Layer Depleting.
A three-way catalytic converter will perform three simultaneous tasks:
1. Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen.
2. Oxidation of carbon monoxide in to carbon dioxide.
3. Oxidation of UN burnt hydrocarbons (HC) into carbon dioxide and water.